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By Emmanuel Rebold

Subtitle: established Upon the traditional records in terms of, and the Monuments Erected by means of This Fraternity From Its origin within the 12 months 715 B.c. to the current Time normal Books booklet date: 2009 unique e-book date: 1869 unique writer: American masonic publishing organization topics: physique, brain

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GENERAL TRANSFORMATION OF FREEMASONRY FROM AN OPERATIVE TO A SPECULATIVE OR PHILOSOPHIC INSTITUTION. DURING the troubles which desolated England about the middle of the seventeenth century, and after the death of Charles I, in 1649, the Masonic corporations of England, and more particularly those of Scotland, labored in secret for the re- establishment of the throne destroy'ed-bvjOrom- well; and for this purpose they instituted many degrees hitherto unknown and totally foreign to the spirit and nature of Freemasonry, arid which, in fact, gave to this time- honored institution a character entirely political.

39 immense in their extent, and upon which chains and had heen carried to people as free as they were so slavery ignorant, served now to carry to enslaved humanity, wearied of life, that new and inspiring liberty preached by Christ. Men now traveled these roads who, filled with Ke new faith, believed it to be their mission to impart to whom they met or overtook in their journey ings a 11 knowledge of the true God and the gospel of his Son. And although, when, alone, these missionary converts were exposed to bloody persecutions in the towns and villages through which they passed, they were invariably permitted to accompany unmolested the Masonic corporations, who now, sometimes alone and sometimes in the retinue of the Roman legions, were continually threading the immense empire.

Homer drew upon them for his ingenious fictions, and clothed his songs with their allegories. The descent into a well, made by the aspirant for initiation, led to the saying that truth was concealed at the bottom of a well. The judges of the dead, before whom they were conducted by the ferryman Charon across the lake Acheron, the urn that contained the ballots, and after an examination of which the judges pronounced sentence and again intrusted the initiates to the care of Charon, who alone appeared to have the right or ability of traversing the subterranean obscurity through which they passed, the barking of dogs, the monsters, the hideous specters, the flitting shades, the furies, the dog Cerberus the sight of all those objects which the Egyptians and the Greeks had invented to try the nerves of the initiates made in their imagination a real hell.

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