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By Christopher Ehret

Nilo-Saharan is likely one of the 4 significant language households at the African continent. It extends eastwards from the Niger to Western Ethiopia and additional southwards to Northern Tanzania. whereas the prestige of Nilo-Saharan as a phylum has been mostly authorised considering Greenberg (1963), the interior category has remained arguable. the current quantity is meant as a decisive contribution in the direction of the verification of the interior dating of the Nilo-Saharan languages. utilizing general sound correspondences for verifying degrees of inner dating was once all started within the Nineteen Eighties, yet this paintings takes up the consequences completed hitherto and maintains from this foundation. New resources are considered: except reconstructing consonants, vowels and tone, the research additionally comprises derivational and inflectional morphology in addition to pronouns. The publication involves major components. the 1st half (chapter 2-8) is devoted to the reconstruction of consonants, vowels and tone, to the subclassification of Nilo-Saharan, verbal and nominal derivation, inflection and the pronominal procedure. the second one half (chapter nine) is an etymological dictionary of 1,606 roots, complemented through annotations and reflexes of the roots within the specific languages. greater than 10,000 roots are mentioned without delay. The research of the 1st half (chapter 2-8) relies at the facts prepared in bankruptcy nine. an important results of Ehret's paintings matters the connection of Songay within the Nilo-Saharan context. the writer argues convincingly that Songay might be considered as an necessary member of the Nilo-Saharan family members. Connections with Mande has to be obvious as borrowings from Songay into Mande. additionally, the tested typical sound correspondences and the reconstructed Proto-Nilo-Saharan vocabulary let for drawing up phonological histories of every language and distinguishing among personal loan as opposed to long term inherited phrases.

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Je passe d'infirmité en infirmité. Mon corps est mon tortionnaire. J'ai peine à comprendre comment j'ai pu accumuler tant d'années sans succomber sous leur poids. Presque tous mes amis sont des écorchés, d'une susceptibilité maladive. C'est en pensant à eux que j'ai écrit sur la Rancune. Aije trop généralisé en en faisant une dimension commune à tous les hommes? Je ne le pense pas. Il n'y a qu'une nostalgie : celle du Paradis. Et peut-être celle de l'Espagne. Je ne puis rien lire sur les (( ües fortunées)) des Anciens ou sur les <<îles d'or» des Chinois à l'époque taoïste, sans éprouver une sorte de défaillance physique.

Il y a en moi comme un hosanna foudroyé, des hymnes réduits en poudre, une explosion de regrets. Un homme pour qui il n'y a pas de patrie ici-bas. 43 Parler affaires quand on n'est de nulle part, se démener dans le quotidien quand on vit un drame religieux! Aux prises avec la langue française : une agonie dans le sens véritable du mot, un combat où j'ai toujours le dessous. (( ... mais Élohim sait que, le jour où vous en mangerez, vos yeux s'ouvriront ... , c'est tout le drame de la vonnaissance.

Nous cesserions d'être si nous savions à quel point nous sommes irréels. Si l'on veut vivre, il faut s'abstenir de penser à la vie, de l'isoler dans l'univers, de vouloir la cerner. Je n'ai jamais émis des idées, j'ai toujours été possédé par elles. Quand je crois en concevoir une, c'est elle qui me tient et m'asservit. 62 Les grandes époques de l'histoire demeurent celles de « despotisme éclairé». (Dix-huitième siècle). L'esprit ne s'épanouit ni dans les excès de la liberté ni dans ceux de la terreur.

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