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By Christopher Ehret

Nilo-Saharan is likely one of the 4 significant language households at the African continent. It extends eastwards from the Niger to Western Ethiopia and extra southwards to Northern Tanzania. whereas the prestige of Nilo-Saharan as a phylum has been mostly accredited on account that Greenberg (1963), the interior category has remained debatable. the current quantity is meant as a decisive contribution in the direction of the verification of the interior dating of the Nilo-Saharan languages. utilizing common sound correspondences for verifying degrees of inner courting used to be started within the Eighties, yet this paintings takes up the implications completed hitherto and maintains from this foundation. New assets are considered: except reconstructing consonants, vowels and tone, the examine additionally contains derivational and inflectional morphology in addition to pronouns. The booklet involves major components. the 1st half (chapter 2-8) is devoted to the reconstruction of consonants, vowels and tone, to the subclassification of Nilo-Saharan, verbal and nominal derivation, inflection and the pronominal process. the second one half (chapter nine) is an etymological dictionary of 1,606 roots, complemented via annotations and reflexes of the roots within the specific languages. greater than 10,000 roots are mentioned at once. The research of the 1st half (chapter 2-8) relies at the facts prepared in bankruptcy nine. crucial results of Ehret's paintings issues the connection of Songay within the Nilo-Saharan context. the writer argues convincingly that Songay could be considered as an crucial member of the Nilo-Saharan relations. Connections with Mande has to be obvious as borrowings from Songay into Mande. moreover, the verified average sound correspondences and the reconstructed Proto-Nilo-Saharan vocabulary enable for drawing up phonological histories of every language and distinguishing among mortgage as opposed to long term inherited phrases.

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Extra resources for A Historical-Comparative Reconstruction of Nilo-Saharan (SUGIA)

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Sentence adverbs In our text material a group of adverbs has been quantitatively dif­ ferentiated which prevalently, or rather often are used in a parenthetic position as an insertion commenting the sense of the whole sentence. g. vlastně 'in f a c t ' , samozřejmě 'of course', jistě 'certainly', prostě 'simply', snad 'per­ haps' - all of them occurring parenthetically with a frequency of 70%- 96%. g. g. g. g. tento první krok bývá většinou radostný 'this first step is usually joyful'. g. g. výrobek je samozřejmě zcela mimořádný 'the product is, of course, quite exceptional' .

2. 4. + 3. 00 Table 6 - technicky (4) Rank Sg. in % Rank P1. -3. 76 + 1 . 82 + 6. -3. L 12. 00 2. + 1 . 6. 33 3. 4. 76 5. 5. 43 + 4. 00 Table 7 - hospodářský Sg. -3. 04 + 1 . 80 + 6. -5. 00 Rank P1. in % 3. + 1 . + 6. 21 + 2. + 3. -3. -5. 00 4. 5. 60 P1. Rank Sg. -3. 00 + 1 . 33 4. 61 5. -3. 00 + 2. 1 . -6. 3. -6. + 4. 00 Table 9 - významný Sg. in Rank in % % (7) Rank P1. 90 2. 63 4. 43 + 1 . 32 + 5. 19. 14 + 3. 00 + 5. 1 . 2. 6. 45 4. 3. 3. 19 6. 00 Table 10 - státní (8) Sg. in % Rank P1.

5. 00 Rank P1. in % 3. + 1 . + 6. 21 + 2. + 3. -3. -5. 00 4. 5. 60 P1. Rank Sg. -3. 00 + 1 . 33 4. 61 5. -3. 00 + 2. 1 . -6. 3. -6. + 4. 00 Table 9 - významný Sg. in Rank in % % (7) Rank P1. 90 2. 63 4. 43 + 1 . 32 + 5. 19. 14 + 3. 00 + 5. 1 . 2. 6. 45 4. 3. 3. 19 6. 00 Table 10 - státní (8) Sg. in % Rank P1. 55 2. ՜64 3. 79 + 1 . 64 + 6. 66 5. 18. 18 2. 48 3. 55 5. 88 4. 57 4. 00 + 1 . G D — 43 44 Helena Confortiová Table 11 - ekonomický Sg. in % (9) Rank P1. 77 + 2. 73 + 1 . 92 + 1 . 42 + 6.

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