By Elena Agarossi, Harvey Fergusson II
Drawing on as a rule unpublished files, A kingdom Collapses revises the normal knowing of a severe second within the background of global battle II: the cave in of the Italian fascist regime and Italy's unconditional quit in September 1943. The publication argues that, in the course of their mystery negotiations sooner than the overthrow of Mussolini in July 1943, either Italy and Britain negotiated in undesirable religion and with loads of duplicity. The ensuing misunderstandings and misjudgments ended in an unexpectedly lengthy and brutal crusade of conquest following Italy's quit.
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Additional resources for A Nation Collapses: The Italian Surrender of September 1943
On the other hand, no declaration could have overcome the Soviets' deep distrust of the Anglo-Americans or prevented them from seeking alternative solutions, if these appeared more favorable to Soviet interests. The unconditional surrender proclamation did not prevent Stalin from continuing to explore a possible separate peace with Germany, even in the spring and summer of 1943. This is perhaps why the Soviet government did not react to the Anglo-American initiative and did not even acknowledge its existence between late January and early May 1943.
The first Anglo-American military plans for the Mediterranean were quite different from what the Italians supposed. In the Allied strategy for 1943, Italy had a decidedly secondary place. It was only at the Casablanca Conference in January 1943 that an attack on Sicily was chosen to be the next step in the Allied offensive, a decision that was to carry great weight for Italy's future. The landing in Sicily was proposed by the British and accepted by Roosevelt in spite of strenuous opposition from American military commanders.
Both Roosevelt and Churchill later emphasized the improvised, even accidental nature of the decision. Roosevelt told his friend and confidant Harry Hopkins that "the thought popped into my head,"24 while Churchill, speaking to the House of Commons on July 21, 1949, remembered that he heard the expression for the first time when Roosevelt pronounced it at the press conference. This account of how the decision was reached to impose un- 20 From a Separate Peace to Unconditional Surrender conditional surrender on the Axis countries is not in accord with investigations by historians, who have arrived at entirely different conclusions: the decision was neither spontaneous nor casual; rather, unconditional surrender was a policy set in advance and previously elaborated.