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By John Vattanky

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Extra info for A System of Indian Logic: The Nyaya Theory of Inference: Analysis, Text, Translation and Interpretation of the anumana section of Karikavali, Muktavali and Dinakari

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Ghatanistiiavisayatä ghatatvävacchinnä. Here, the determinant (avacchedaka) of visayata existing in jar is jarness {ghatatva). In non-technical language, this only means that we are talking here only of the instance of knowledge in which the object is jar and nothing else. It is this precision of meaning that is brought about by these technical terms. Similar is the meaning of the word avacchedaka in such expressions as pratiyo git avacchedaka, adhikaranatävacchedoka etc. Introduction 21 pratihandhakatävacchedaka here is to be understood as anatiriktavrttitva.

Fallacy of Opposite Reason (viruddha) The fallacious reason of Opposite is defined as that which is the counterpositive of the absence which is the pervader of 24 Nyaya Theory of Inference sädhya (sMhyavyäpakibhütäbhäväpratiyogitvam) as for example 'the mountain has fire because of water'. e. 'wherever there is fire there is the absence of water'. Such a fallacious reason prevents inferential knowledge since it is the causal complex for the knowledge of the absence of sädhya. Here, it may be asked: if the false reason of Opposite establishes the absence of sädhya, and the false reason having Counterthesis also brings about the knowledge of the absence of sädhya, what is the difference between these two kinds of false reasons?

M. first of all gives the reason why this final definition is given. This is because the provisional definition does not apply in the case of inferences where that which is to be established is purely affirmative such as knowability and so on. Besides, there will be the fault of too narrow application in such inferences as 'it has existence because it has universal'. This is because in universal and so on which are other than that which is to be established nothing occurs by the relation of inherence which is the relation of the determinant of the state of being reason.

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