By Jacques Barzun
Engl. Language and experiences
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Additional resources for A Word or Two Before You Go . . . . Brief essays on language
What little we know about evidentials in child language acquisition is summarized in the appendix to this chapter. Chapter 12 is a précis of the book. It contains a summary and a brief recapitulation of the overall conclusions. Here I also suggest further problems and further routes of investigation of evidentiality across the languages of the world. A major objective of this book is to encourage scholars to undertake ﬁeldwork-based in-depth investigations of evidentials all over the world. How should one go about it?
Reported evidential in larger systems—such as Quechua or Shipibo-Konibo—does not have such connotations. g. 3). This further corroborates their status as distinct categories. g. ³ Scholars tend to assume that evidentials are modals largely because of their absence in most major European languages, thus trying to explain an unusual category in terms of some other, more conventional, notion. There is simply no other place in a Standard Average European grammar where they could be assigned. For want of a better option, evidentials are then translated into European languages with epistemic markers.
This term is occasionally extended to larger systems. ) The corresponding term in the Turkic tradition, suggested by Johanson (1996, 1998, 2000a, b), is ‘indirective’. This is, perhaps, a continuation of the tradition—originated by Haarmann (1970)—whereby ‘indirect experience’ is treated as a separate category, and not a subtype of a more general notion of information source, or evidentiality. Another terminological tradition has been established for the languages of the Balkans. The confusion in the ways the term ‘witnessed’ was used to cover the evidentials in these languages led Aronson (1967) to propose a new term.